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Also see SEP on time travel and time machines. Timon of Philius BCE Greek skeptic who expounded and defended the views of Pyrrhonism by offering satirical commentary on the works of Plato , Aristotle , and other Greek philosophers. Thus, for example, the preceding sentence is 18 words long token , but contains only 16 words type , since "a" and "or" are each used twice.

The unnatural lottery : character and moral luck, Claudia Card

Toland, John English philosopher. Toland's Christianity not Mysterious offered a purely rational defense of god's existence and relation to the natural world, marking a transition between the philosophy of John Locke and the rise of Deism. Also see EB. Kant employed transcendental arguments to establish our synthetic yet a priori knowledge of mathematics and natural science as features of the world as it appears to us.

Strawson employs a similar pattern of reasoning to show that our identification of particulars presupposes the existence of material objects. Pluhar and Patricia Kitcher Hackett, ; F.

"A Secular Theory of Evil" with Claudia Card – IPPL

Transposition Trans. Trotsky, Leon Lev Davidovich Bronstein Russian social and political philosopher who participated in the Bolshevik revolution but was later exiled by Stalin. Although he often expressed respect for the psychological theories of Freud , Trotsky's effort to establish philosophical foundations for the political theories of Marx in the later book In Defence of Marxism emphasized a narrow reliance on dialectical materialism as a comprehensive view of social reality.

Precise analysis of the nature of truth is the subject of the correspondence , coherence , pragmatic , redundancy , and semantic theories of truth. Recommended Reading: Theories of Truth , ed.

Vulnerability, Moral Luck and the Morality of Natural Law

Also see SEP on truth , truthlikeness , Tarski's truth definitions , and the correspondence , coherence , deflationary , identity , and revision theories of truth, EB , and Norman Swartz. After her emancipation from slavery, Sojourner Truth became famous as public speaker; one of her best-known orations is Ain't I a Woman?

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The Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Bondswoman of Olden Time dictated to Olive Gilbert in is a clear statement of her principled defence of women's rights, temperance, and the abolition of slavery. In moral life, especially, this significantly diminishes the tendency of virtue to produce happiness with any regularity or certainty. Recommended Reading: F.

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Example: "Republicans claim that Democrats make illegal use of campaign funds. But they do the same thing themselves, so there is no reason to enforce campaign finance laws. Also see FF. Turing, Alan Mathison English mathematician. In addition to its practical importance for the development of digital computing equipment, Turing's theory provides support for a functionalist account of the mind by proposing the practical test of whether or not we would attribute intelligence to a system whose performance is indistinguishible from that of a human agent.

The distinction is also used by Davidson and other philosophers of mind to emphasize that a reasonable identity theory need only argue for the identity of mental and physical events as types, not necessarily as tokens. Also see SEP.

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  • The Unnatural Lottery: Character and Moral Luck by Claudia Card.
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  • "Remembering Claudia Card" by Paula Gottlieb and Lynne Tirrell.

Atrocities deserve more attention than secular philosophers have so far paid them. They are distinguished from ordinary wrongs not by the psychological states of evildoers but by the seriousness of the harm that is done.

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Evildoers need not be sadistic:they may simply be negligent or unscrupulous in pursuing their goals. Card's theory represents a compromise between classic utilitarian and stoic alternatives including Kant's theory of radical evil.

Utilitarians tend to reduce evils to their harms; Stoics tend to reduce evils to the wickedness of perpetrators: Card accepts neither reduction. She also responds to Nietzsche's challenges about the worth of the concept of evil, and she uses her theory to argue that evils are more important than merely unjust inequalities.

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She applies the theory in explorations of war rape and violence against intimates. She also takes up what Primo Levi called "the gray zone", where victims become complicit in perpetrating on others evils that threaten to engulf themselves.

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While most past accounts of evil have focused on perpetrators, Card begins instead from the position of the victims, but then considers more generally how to respond to -- and live with -- evils, as victims, as perpetrators, and as those who have become both. Diabolical Evil Revisited. The Atrocity Paradigm.

Two Extremes.