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Eklund has presented his research and participated as a keynote lecturer and invited colloquia speaker at numerous conferences worldwide. With regard to professional service to the field, Dr. He is a former director of the Ribstein Center for Research and Sport Medicine at the Wingate Institute in Israel, and coordinator of the graduate program in sport psychology at the University of Southern Queensland, Australia. He has published extensively in psychology and sport psychology in the areas of expertise and decision making; linking emotions, cognitions, and motor systems; psychometrics; and coping with physical effort experiences.
Tenenbaum has written and edited several books. He is a member of several professional organizations and a fellow of the American Psychological Association Division 47 , Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, and the American Academy of Kinesiology. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure.
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Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Roller skating, basketball, canoeing, golf, rugby league, rugby union, soccer and swimming. Principle components analysis provided minimal support for the factor structure. Psychometric analysis of the model using CFA fitted the data well, collectively satisfying absolute and incremental fit index benchmarks with adequate reliability and convergent and discriminant validity.
Boxing, swimming, athletics, judo, triathlon, rowing, pentathlon, squash, cricket and rugby union from Australia,. Focus group meetings with follow-up semi-structured interviews with each participant. The MTI is constructed based on the mental toughness model developed earlier through the qualitative study. Reliability estimates for each of the factors, across both samples, were well above the acceptable level of 0.
Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that solutions based on the qualitatively derived model of mental toughness fitted the data well. The reliability coefficients for each of the factors ranged from 0. Highlighted the role significance of the environment in mental toughness development.
Significant relationships with optimism, self-image, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and trait anxiety cf. Based on the general framework of Personal Construct Psychology Kelly, ;. Questionnaire requiring to list the characteristics of an athlete who is mentally tough, rank the first three factors in order of importance and rate the extent to which the coach and psychologist could strengthen these characteristics in an athlete.
Coaches viewed concentration as the most important characteristic, while the athletes regarded perseverance as the most important. Used inductive content analysis to identify emergent themes and patterns in the data and arranged and sorted under key title. Coaches rated the effectiveness of coaches and sport psychologists in strengthening the characteristics of mental toughness more highly than athletes did.
Psychometric examinations of the PPI have failed to support its factorial validity e. Mental toughness as an important personality attribute underlying behaviour in athletics could not be suggested. Purported to be one of sixteen primary traits that described personality, Cattell viewed tough-minded individuals as self-reliant, realistic and responsible, and contrasted this with emotional sensitivity. The extensive work of Loehr , who advocated that mental toughness is an attribute of those who respond to problems, pressure, making mistakes and competition with the right attitude.
According to Loehr , mentally tough performers are disciplined thinkers who respond to pressure in ways which enables them to remain feeling relaxed, calm and energized simply because of the ability to sustain positive energy flow despite adversity. Crust noted that one point of contention in the literature had been related to whether mental toughness is conceptualized as an inherited, innate personality characteristic or if the acquisition of mental toughness is believed to be due more to environmental factors and learning. In addition, these studies are not based on rigorous theoretical and scientific methods.
The limitations of earlier studies reflect the development of mental toughness in the future. Therefore, contemporary research begins to explore the definition and characteristics of mental toughness with qualitative and quantitative research patterns. The next section focuses on the qualitative approaches to the study of mental toughness. They identified twelve components of mental toughness, including motivation level, coping skills, confidence maintenance, cognitive skills, discipline and goal-directedness, competitiveness, possession of prerequisite physical and mental requirements, team unity, preparation skills, psychological hardiness, and ethics.
Drawing from these responses, they recognized the subjective interpretation of the way coaches and athletes described characteristics of mental toughness. In brief, this theory focuses on both the uniqueness of the individual and the processes common to all people. Furthermore, personal construct theory proposes that individuals strive to understand, interpret, anticipate, and control the world of experience in order to deal effectively with it Kelly, A limitation in early mental toughness research is its general conceptualization of the construct of mental toughness.
The results mirrored their earlier definition of mental toughness.
Mental toughness in sport | SpringerLink
Moreover, they also extended the list of attributes considered essential to the make-up of mental toughness to In this regard, following his conceptualization of mental toughness, Loehr constructed the Psychological Performance Inventory PPI. Despite its widespread usage, evidence has emerged suggesting limitations of its psychometric properties. Besides, Gucciardi also concluded that the psychometric evidence for the hypothesized measurement model of the PPI is not encouraging for its future use.
Using principal component analysis to find structure in their data, they used confirmatory factor analysis to assess the psychometric structure of the model. Collectively satisfying absolute and incremental fit index benchmarks, the inventory possesses satisfactory psychometric properties, with adequate reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. The results lend preliminary support to the factorial validity and reliability of the model.
Sheard used the PPI-A to investigate national differences in mental toughness between rugby league players in the United Kingdom and Australia. The results from this study indicated that significant differences in mental toughness were apparent between national teams. Although these findings are based on small sample size, Sheard concluded that these findings provided evidence for the divergent or discriminant validity i. It has an overall test—retest coefficient of 0. Middleton, Martin, and Marsh reported that the MTI is strong on conceptual grounds with strong psychometric properties and high reliability.
Confirmatory analysis using structural equation modelling confirmed the overall structure. Collectively, satisfying absolute and incremental fit-index benchmarks, the inventory was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, with adequate reliability, divergent validity, and discriminative power. Confirmatory factor analysis with footballers revealed that the factor model did not fit the data well.
Gucciardi concluded that further work is required to address these concerns. One factor i. Gucciardi found support for the validity of the CMTI measurement model by confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability analysis. These mixed findings warrant further investigation into how mental toughness is to be measured. They placed great emphasis on ecological validity and as such consulted elite athletes and coaches and drew upon their own applied work to gain an applied perspective on mental toughness.
Thus, these implicate that mental toughness, coping skills, and performance outcome are inter-related to each other and worth to be studied for the purpose of improving sport development and performance.
Another psychological construct that appears to be related to both mental toughness and coping is optimism. Researchers became interested in studying optimism because more optimistic individuals exhibit increased effort to achieve goals. Finally, optimism appears to be associated with differences in coping behaviour. In terms of countries distribution, the vast majority of studies were from the European setting. Seven studies involved multiple sports and five studies involved specific sports.
The initial interest was focused mainly on the operational definition of mental toughness which was followed by understanding the operational mechanisms underpinning the development of mental toughness and lastly, measurement tools for assessing mental toughness among athletes. The commonalities in these hypothesized psychological characteristics e. These have resulted in the emergent of common themes, shared experiences and strategies for developing mental toughness. Another prominent theme to be revealed is the role of the coach and how they may facilitate the development of mental toughness.
Whilst, the reported research supports the view that mental toughness can be developed differentially, it appears that there is an inestimable amount of mental toughness which is based on social experiences and key supportive agents i. The review suggests that experiences and environments that individuals are exposed to in the formative years of development are crucial in determining the experience-based aspects of mental toughness.
Other aspects developed through the middle years, where performers benefit from others i. What remains to be seen is establishing the most appropriate and effective approaches to assist the development of the aspects absent in individuals when not exposed to such facilitative environments. Although both qualitative e. Mental toughness appears to be multidimensional and most often associated with unshakeable self-belief, the ability to rebound after failures resilience , persistence or refusal to quit, coping effectively with adversity and pressure, and retaining concentration in the face of many potential distractions.
Therefore, this issue should be considered as the future direction of study because there is still room for further development of potential mechanisms for confirmation. Chen, G. Kuan, C. Siong and H. Hashim declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
Mental toughness in sport Systematic review and future. First Online: 17 July In the first phase, the records were initially obtained through extensive database searching. In the second phase, the titles of records were screened, and records were removed if they did not refer to the following terms or close variants of such : mental toughness, sport, athlete. This process resulted in the removal of records. In the third phase, the full-texts of the final records were examined. Open image in new window.